https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/issue/feed SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA 2023-12-28T19:32:55+00:00 S Mubarak jurnalspin@uinmataram.ac.id Open Journal Systems <p>SPIN adalah jurnal berkala yang diterbitkan dua kali setahun pada bulan Juni dan Desember oleh Program Studi Tadris Kimia FTK UIN Mataram. Jurnal ini berisi artikel yang diangkat dari hasil penelitian khususnya di bidang kimia dan pendidikan kimia.</p> https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/7306 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF ARA FRUIT EXTRACT (Ficus racemosa Linn.) USING DPPH METHOD 2023-05-23T06:24:28+00:00 Baiq Rauhil Hidayanti 190109032.mhs@uinmataram.ac.id Novia Suryani noviasuryani@uinmataram.ac.id Yuli Kusuma Dewi yulichemist@uinmataram.ac.id <p><em>Ficus racemosa Linn. is a native Indonesian plant known as the ara plant in Lombok or Elo in East Java. The fruit has a fragrant aroma, soft texture, mild sweet taste and a little sour. Presence of ara (Ficus racemosa Linn.) is mostly known as one of the plants whose fruit can only be eaten and used as a medicine for diarrhea, but the compounds contained in ara are not yet known, so research is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the secondary metabolit content of ara fruit extract and antioxidant activity using the DPPH method. Ara fruit was extracted by maceration method using methanol solvent. The results of the phytochemical screening showed that the ara fruit extract contained secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. Antioxidant activity (IC50) extract of ara with various concentrations of 25; 50; 75; 100; and 125 ppm soul a value of 65.042 ppm. Based on the results of antioxidant activity, it can be seen that ara fruit extract is classified as a strong antioxidant.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/7543 VALIDITY OF MOBILE LEARNING-BASED LEARNING MEDIA ON SMARTPHONES HYDROCARBON MATERIALS 2023-06-12T14:38:10+00:00 Putri Ranik Jintan putriranikjintan@gmail.com Hilfi Pardi 190384204001@student.umrah.ac.id Rita Fitriani 190384204001@student.umrah.ac.id <p><em>This research was aimed to develop learning media, as well test the level validity of mobile learning based learning media on hydrocarbon material smartphones. This development research uses the smart apps creator software and the canva application. This research used the Research and Development (R&amp;D), with the ADDIE development model. In this study focused on the media development stage/development stage. The research subjects were one chemistry teacher and 35 students in class XI MIPA SMA Negeri 4 Tanjungpinang. The results of media validation in the development of</em> <em>mobile learning based learning media </em><em>on</em> <em>smartphones </em><em>on hydrocarbon material obtained a result of 68.75% with valid criteria and the results of material validation obtained a value of 89.28 % with very valid criteria. Based on the research that has been done, it can be concluded that</em> <em>mobile learning based learning media </em><em>on hydrocarbon material smartphones is valid so it is suitable for use in chemistry learning.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/7743 ASSESSING COCONUT OIL PROPERTIES AS A POTENTIAL REPLACEMENT OF THE TRANSFORMER OIL 2023-06-29T14:54:16+00:00 Isa Umaru Usman isausmanumaru@gmail.com Saroj Raj Kafle sarojrajkafle@gmail.com Abdulhalim Musa Abubakar abdulhalim@mau.edu.ng Rashid Shamsuddin mrashids@utp.edu.my Aadil Khursheed aaddikhan12@gmail.com Ehime Irene Itamah itamahehis@gmail.com Muhammad Abbagoni Abubakar magoni@unimaid.edu.ng <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/7859 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SnO2 USING JAPANESE PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACT (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) AS CAPPING AGENT BY HYDROTHERMAL METHOD 2023-07-12T05:59:16+00:00 Reyrin Ceria Amanta reyrinca@gmail.com Nadia Refa Fheronica nadiareva2000@gmail.com Asdim asdim@unib.ac.id Charles Banon reyrinca@gmail.com Irfan Gustian irfan.g@unib.ac.id Eka Angasa eka.angasa@gmail.com <p><em>Synthesis of SnO<sub>2</sub> has been carried out by using extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf as a natural capping agent. The synthesis aims to determine the effect of the use of a capping agent on the crystallinity and the size of crystals. The mass variations of the capping agent used were 5, 10, and 15 gram using the hydrothermal method at relatively low temperature (95-100<sup>°</sup>C). The synthesized of SnO<sub>2</sub> were characterized using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-Ray Difraction). The results of FTIR characterization show the stretching vibration absorption band of Sn-O-Sn in the spectrum with and without capping agent at wave number 599 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 599.333 cm<sup>-1</sup> . XRD diffractogram shows that SnO<sub>2</sub> without a capping agent and using a capping agent has relatively the same crystallinity. Mass variations of 5, 10, and 15 gram resulted in crystals measuring 14.37 nm, 13.75 nm, and 11.78 nm and SnO<sub>2</sub> without capping agent measuring 15.93 nm. The results showed that the Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf solution could be used as a natural capping agent to produce SnO<sub>2</sub>. The results of SEM characterization show that aggregate reduction can be seen in the addition of Japanese papaya (Cnodoscolus aconitifolius) capping agent.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/7871 FORMULATION AND NANOEMULSION OF NUTMEG ESSENTIAL OIL (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) AND SUNSCREEN ACTIVITY TEST USING UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 2023-07-14T02:14:34+00:00 Cindy Sheiliyani cindi.sheiliyani@mhs.unsoed.ac.id Arif Nur Hidayat arif.hidayat061@mhs.unsoed.ac.id Undri Rastuti undri.rastuti@unsoed.ac.id Moch Chasani hartiwi.diastuti@unsoed.ac.id Hartiwi Diastuti hartiwi.diastuti@unsoed.ac.id <p><em>Nutmeg essential oil (Myristica fragrans Houtt) is a natural ingredient that has potential as a sunscreen. This research aims to formulate and characterize nutmeg essential oil nanoemulsion and test the sunscreen activity of nutmeg essential oil and its nanoemulsion. The essential oil and nanoemulsion formulas were made with 5 variations of essential oil concentrations namely F0 (0%), F1 (1%), F2 (2%), F3 (4%) and F4 (6%). The nanoemulsion characterization includes organoleptic test, pH measurement, nanoemulsion type examination, viscosity measurement, percent transmittance test, particle size distribution measurement, centrifugation test, freez-thaw cycle test. Testing the potential of sunscreen was carried out using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength range of 290-400 nm with ethanol as a blank. The results of the nanoemulsion organoleptic characterization showed a clear and stable appearance. Measurements of pH, type of nanoemulsion, viscosity, percent transmittance, and particle size of nanoemulsion preparations showed good results and were in accordance with the parameters. The nutmeg essential oil nanoemulsion had better SPF, %Te and %Tp values than the essential oil. Nanoemulsion preparations that had the best sunscreen activity in this study were F4 (6%) with an SPF value of 1.538; %Te value of 37.375%; and %Tp value of 80.732%.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/7895 THE RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHER AND STUDENT EDUCATIVE INTERACTIONS ON CHEMISTRY LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT OF SMAN 4 MATARAM STUDENTS 2023-07-20T06:15:39+00:00 Riri Sahri Soumi sahririri0@gmail.com Aliefman Hakim sahririri0@gmail.com Yayuk Andayani sahririri0@gmail.com <p><em>This study aims to determine how the educative interaction of teachers and students and their relationship to chemistry learning achievement of grade XI and XII IPA students of SMAN 4 Mataram. This research is an ex-post facto quantitative study with a total population of 275 students in class XI and XII IPA. The sample used was 163 students who were determined using a stratified random sampling technique. The data collection method uses a teacher-student educational interaction questionnaire and documentation of the results of the Mid Semester Examination scores for the chemistry subject for Odd Semester 2022/2023 Academic Year. Descriptive analysis technique to find out how the pattern of teacher-student educational interaction and chemistry learning achievement as well as hypothesis testing with Pearson Product Moment correlation. Based on the descriptive analysis, the percentage of each indicator of the form of educational interaction states that students in class XI and XII IPA in chemistry learning use two-way communication. The percentage of educational interaction based on strata (class) and overall the students of SMAN 4 Mataram are in the moderate category. The results of the study stated that there was a positive and significant relationship between the educative interaction of teachers and students on the chemistry learning achievements of class XI and XII IPA SMAN 4 Mataram in the 2022/2023 Academic Year. The strength of the relationship between the educational interaction variable and the chemistry learning achievement is included in the high category with each addition of 1.289 the value of the chemistry learning achievement, the value of the educational interaction increases by 34,75%.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/7997 A JIGSAW TYPE COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL ASSISTED BY STUDENT WORKSHEET INFLUENCE ON LEARNING OUTCOMES IN THE CHEMISTRY OF SALT HYDROLYSIS MATERIALS 2023-08-01T07:42:50+00:00 Baiq Istira Ariani Ariani baiqistira07@gmail.com Burhanuddin burhan.kimia@unram.ac.id Lalu Rudyat Telly Savalas telly@unram.ac.id <p><em>Despite its popularity, the discovery learning model is not always successful in improving learning outcomes, especially in populations of students with large ability disparities. The group of high achieving students is too dominant and the low achieving group tends to participate less, so they don't get optimal results. Therefore, alternative learning models are needed to encourage class participation. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of the jigsaw type cooperative learning model using student worksheet on the results of learning chemistry on salt hydrolysis in class XI MIPA students. This research uses a non-equivalent control group design. The application of the jigsaw type cooperative model and discovery learning are used as independent variable and learning outcomes are designated as dependent variable. Samples were taken through the non-probability sampling technique with saturated sampling. Classes XI MIPA 1 and XI MIPA 2 are the experimental class and the control class in this study, respectively. Data collection using pre-test and post-test on the sample class with multiple choice test instruments. Hypothesis testing with the t-test to produce </em> <em> 3.48 </em><em>and with a value of </em> <em>2.01</em><em>. This data shows that the jigsaw type cooperative model using student worksheet has a significant impact on student learning outcomes as indicated by </em> <em> </em><em style="font-size: 0.875rem;">T<span style="font-size: 10.5px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; bottom: -0.25em;">count </span></em><em style="font-size: 0.875rem;">which is greater than T<sub>Table</sub> </em> <em style="font-size: 0.875rem;">.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/8071 THE EFFECT OF ARTICULATE STORYLINE-BASED INTERACTIVE LEARNING MEDIA ON THE CHEMISTRY CLASS XI STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES 2023-08-13T07:23:02+00:00 Mudrikah 190109003.mhs@uinmataram.ac.id Raehanah 190109003.mhs@uinmataram.ac.id Lukman Taufik 190109003.mhs@uinmataram.ac.id <p><em>The aim of this research is to determine whether there is an influence of articulate storyline-based interactive learning media on students' cognitive learning outcomes and affective learning outcomes in class XI chemistry learning. This research uses a quasi-experimental quantitative approach and a non-equivalent control group research design. The population of this study was all class XI IPA. The technique used for sampling was saturated sampling, class XI IPA I with a total of 36 students as the control class and class XI IPA II with a total of 41 students as the experimental class. Data collection uses multiple choice questions for cognitive learning outcomes and questionnaires for affective learning outcomes. Hypothesis testing uses the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for univariate tests and Kruskal Wallis for multivariate tests. Based on the results of the hypothesis test, the following conclusions were obtained: 1) There is an influence of articulate storyline-based interactive learning media on students' cognitive learning outcomes in Class XI chemistry learning on a univariate basis, with a value of Sig. 0.002&lt;0.05. 2) There is an influence of articulate storyline-based interactive learning media on students' affective learning outcomes in Class XI chemistry learning univariately, with a value of Sig. 0.000&lt;0.05. 3) There is an influence of articulate storyline-based interactive learning media on students' cognitive learning outcomes and affective learning outcomes in Class XI chemistry learning in a multivariate manner, with a value of Sig. 0.000&lt;0.05.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/8072 MODELING METHODS EFFECT ON STUDENT’S MOTIVATION AND LEARNING OUTCOMES IN CHEMISTRY AT MA DARUL AMININ NW AIKMUAL 2023-08-13T08:16:30+00:00 Anis Sulastri 190109013.mhs@uinmataram.ac.id Raehanah 190109013.mhs@uinmataram.ac.id Devi Qurniati 190109013.mhs@uinmataram.ac.id <p><em>The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the use of modeling methods on students' motivation and learning outcomes in Chemistry at MA Darul Aminin NW Aikmual. The sampling technique used is a nonprobability sampling technique in the form of saturated sampling. The approach used is a quantitative approach, with a quasi-experimental type and a research design that is nonequivalent control group design with a pretest-posttest type. Based on the analysis of the N-Gain motivational score, the experimental class was 24.6251 (not effective), and the control class was 14.7795 (ineffective). Then, the N-Gain score of learning outcomes in the experimental class was 63.9940 (quite effective), and in the control class it was 46.0750 (less effective). Based on the hypothesis test, it can be concluded as follows, (1) there is no effect of the modeling method on students' motivation to learn chemistry at MA Darul Aminin NW Aikmual as evidenced by a sig value of 0.117 &gt; 0.05, (2) there is an effect of the modeling method on students' chemistry learning outcomes at MA Darul Aminin NW Aikmual is proven by a sig value of 0.000 &lt;0.05, and (3) the influence of the modeling method on students' motivation and learning outcomes in chemistry at MA Darul Aminin NW Aikmual is proven by a sig value of 0.000 &lt;0.05.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/8369 THE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY (Hg) IN GREEN MUSSELS (Perna Viridis) USING REFLUX DIGESTION BY COLD VAPOUR ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY (CV-AAS) 2023-09-26T11:49:49+00:00 Atina Khoiron Nisa atinaniesa@gmail.com Diana C Dewi atinaniesa@gmail.com Umaiyatus Syarifah atinaniesa@gmail.com <p><em>Green mussels, or Perna viridis, are a well-liked fishery product in the community. It can grow happily in a loch, seabord, or mangrove downstream. Through its eggshell, it takes in metals, including mercury (Hg). This study measures the effect of temperature and digestion composition on the amount of mercury (Hg) in green mussels using reflux digestion by cold vapour absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). Utilizing Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CV-AAS) at a wavelength of 253,7 nm, the study's methodology entails figuring out the ideal digestion composition and temperature for various HNO<sub>3</sub> p.a.: H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> p.a. destructor compositions (1:0; 2:1; 4:1; 10:3). The results of the investigation indicated that the optimal temperature was 80<sup>0</sup>C. With a p-value (0,023) &gt; a (0,05), the t-test result demonstrated a significant effect utilizing the variation in digestion composition. The general public can still safely consume green mussels from Muncar Beach because the sample, which was taken at the ideal temperature and with different digestion variations, contained 0.359 parts per million of mercury. The Indonesian National Standard's maximum limit is not met by these results.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/8340 THE DISCOVERY LEARNING MODEL INFLUENCE ON STUDENT CRITICAL THINKING ABILITIES AND CHEMISTRY LEARNING OUTCOMES IN MA. MU'ALLIMAT NWDI PANCOR 2023-09-21T14:13:06+00:00 Putri Ispani Maulidayatul Laili putriispanimaulidayatullaili@gmail.com Raehanah raehanah@uinmataram.ac.id Multazam putriispanimaulidayatullaili@gmail.com <p><em>This study aims to determine the effect of the discovery learning model on critical thinking skills and student chemistry learning outcomes at MA Mu'allimat NWDI Pancor in multivariate and univariate ways. The type of research used is a quasi-experimental research design with a post-test only control group design. The sampling technique in this study was cluster random sampling. The research samples were class XI IPA 2 as the experimental class with 34 students and class XI IPA 1 as the control class with 34 students. The instrument used to measure critical thinking skills is a description test of 5 questions and learning outcomes of 16 multiple choice questions. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: a) There is an influence of the discovery learning model on students' critical thinking skills at MA Mu'allimat NWDI Pancor, as evidenced by the sig value of 0,007 &lt;0,05. b) There is an influence of the discovery learning model on students' chemistry learning outcomes at MA Mu'allimat NWDI Pancor, as evidenced by the sig value of 0,001 &lt;0,05. c) There is an influence of the discovery learning model on critical thinking skills and students' chemistry learning outcomes at MA Mu'allimat NWDI Pancor in a multivariate manner as evidenced by a sig value of 0,000 &lt;0,05.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/8211 THE INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER TYPE ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOPLASTICS MADE FROM TARO TUBER STARCH (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) WITH THE ADDITION OF CANE DRAGUE CELLULOSE 2023-09-04T05:51:39+00:00 Syifa Aulia Permata Sari sipasipaaaa@gmail.com Ristika Oktavia Asriza ristika@ubb.ac.id Adisyahputra ristika@ubb.ac.id <p><em>The problem of plastic waste is currently still the main trigger of environmental pollution, its nature that is not easily degraded will produce more waste. One alternative to overcome this problem is to reduce the use of conventional plastics and develop plastics that are more environmentally friendly or also known as bioplastics. In this study, bioplastics made from taro tuber starch with the addition of bagasse cellulose filler were varied based on the type of plasticizer in the form of glycerol, sorbitol, and propylene glycol. The resulting bioplastics were characterized by FTIR analysis, tensile strength test, TGA test, and water absorption test. The process began with cellulose isolation from sugarcane bagasse which obtained a yield of 24.27%, then taro tuber starch extraction with a yield of 27.87%. The results of the FTIR spectrum of bioplastics did not show significant differences in the absorption of wave numbers for each variation of plasticizer types. The functional groups seen from the FTIR results are O-H, C-H, and C-O groups. Bioplastics with the addition of propylene glycol plasticizer have a high tensile strength value of 23.26 Mpa, good thermal resistance with a mass reduction of 75.89%, and an optimum absorption capacity of 29.4%. In future research, it is necessary to vary the concentration of each type of plasticizer and conduct a simple degradation test</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/9412 THE EFFECT OF IMPLEMENTING THE POP-UP BOOK MEDIA-ASSISTED DEMONSTRATION METHOD ON STUDENT RETENTION AND COGNITIVE LEARNING OUTCOMES 2023-12-28T13:13:19+00:00 Liza Suyatni syarif.almubarak@uinmataram.ac.id Syarifatul Mubarak syarif.almubarak@uinmataram.ac.id Baiq Amelia Riyandari baiqamelia.r@uinmataram.ac.id <p><em>This research aims to determine the effect of applying the demonstration method assisted by pop-up book media on student retention and cognitive learning outcomes. This research was carried out at SMAN 1 Praya Tengah. The research method used was quasi-experimental with a pretest posttest control group design research design. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The research sample was students of class X Science consisting of class X Science 2 as the experimental class and X Science 3 as the control class. The instruments used to measure student retention and cognitive learning outcomes are an objective test of 20 questions and a cognitive interference questionnaire. Analysis of retention data and students' cognitive learning outcomes using the independent sample t-test formula obtained a significance value for cognitive retention of 0.00 &lt; 0.005 with the average value obtained by the experimental class being 86.70% and the control class being 72.75%. For cognitive learning outcomes, the significance value was 0.042 &lt;0.005, with the average score obtained by the experimental class being 73.70 and the control class being 60.36. From these results it can be concluded that there is an influence of the application of the demonstration method assisted by pop-up book media on student retention and cognitive learning outcomes</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA https://journal.uinmataram.ac.id/index.php/spin/article/view/8641 INHIBITION MECHANISM OF COMPONENT EXTRACT OF BAWANG DAYAK ON DIABETES VIA MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDY 2023-10-29T08:00:42+00:00 Mokhamat Ariefin mokhamatariefin@mipa.upr.ac.id Septaria Yolan Kalalinggi septariayolankl@mipa.upr.ac.id <p><em>Several compounds found within Bawang Dayak, including eleutherine and eleutherol, hold promise as potential therapeutic agentsThis research involved molecular docking and Lipinski rule analysis of 13 ligands derived from flavonoids extracted from bawang dayak. The control ligand, acarbose, was found to form four hydrogen bonds with key amino acids (Gln279, Lys156, Asp242, and Glu411), resulting in a binding energy of -9.8 kcal mol-1. Among the ligands, Ligand 3 displayed a lower binding energy of -9.9 kcal mol-1 compared to acarbose and satisfied all five criteria of Lipinski's rule, despite not forming hydrogen bonds. Instead, Ligand 3 exhibited similar hydrophobic interactions as acarbose with amino acids such as Tyr158, Phe178, Val216, Ser240, Asp242, Glu277, Gln279, His280, Arg315, Asp352, Glu411, and Arg442. Several other ligands exhibited binding energies slightly higher than acarbose, such as Ligands 4, 5, and 8, with binding energies of -8.5 kcal mol-1, -8.6 kcal mol-1, and -8.6 kcal mol-1, respectively. Based on this study, Ligands 3, 4, 5, and 8 are considered potential candidates for anti-diabetic agents. These ligands demonstrated binding energies comparable to acarbose, met at least three of the five Lipinski rule criteria, and exhibited similar amino acid interactions with acarbose, indicating their potential effectiveness in managing diabetes.</em></p> 2023-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SPIN JURNAL KIMIA & PENDIDIKAN KIMIA