Facilitating the Development of Students’ Metacognitive Awareness in Speaking through Self-Assessment
The need of developing metacognitive ability-knowing students’ cognitive capacity, the difficulties they meet in learning, and strategies to resolve the difficulties – must be highlighted. In accordance with this need, this research aims to find out the extent of which the implementation of students’ reflection, as a self-assessment, can facilitate students’ metacognitive awareness in a speaking class. This two-cycle action research involved 25 freshmen majoring in Dentistry whose placement test scores ranged between 453 and 617. This study took place in a Free Conversation class in a Language Training Center of a private university in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. For data collection, a 52-items questionnaire entitled “Metacognitive Awareness Inventory” (MAI) adopted from Schraw and Dennison (1994) was distributed as the instrument to measure students’ metacognitive awareness before and after the action, and the participants were required to write reflections. Teacher’s journals and class discussion were taken to triangulate the findings. The findings showed that in
the first cycle, the students haven’t been able to describe their experiences including the difficulties they met during the learning as well as the strategies must be applied to overcome the difficulties. In the second cycle, most of the students have grown their metacognitive awareness as they were able to express their difficulties and the strategies in handling them. Briefly, the reflection written by the students has initiated the growth of students’ metacognitive awareness regardless some constraints appear. Thus, requiring students to reflect on their own learning and harness their metacognitive awareness may result in better learning.
Ariyanti. (2016). Psychological factors affecting students’ speaking performance. Asian TEFL: Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics . 1(1). Retrieved from http://www.asian-tefl.com/index.php/asiantefl/article/view/14
Burns, A. (2010). Doing action research in english language teaching: A guide for practitioners. New York, USA: Routledge.
Colomer, J. et al (2013). Reflective learning in higher Education: A comparative analysis.
Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2008). Learning through reflection. In A. L. Costa, & B. Kallick, Learning and Leading with Habits of Mind. USA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Deve.
Ghapanchi, Z.&Taheryan, A. (2012). Roles of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive Knowledge and metacognitive strategy use in speaking and listening proficiency of Iranian EFL learners.World Journal of Education .2(4). 64-75.
Hacker, J.D., Dunlosky, J., and Graesser, A.C. (2009). Handbook of metacognition in education. New York: Routledge
Hmelo, C.E., Gotterer, G.S., and Bransford, J.D. (1997). A theory-driven approach to assessing the cognitive effects of PBL. Instructional Science. 25 (6), 387-408.
Kemmis, S., &McTaggart, R. (1988). Introduction: The nature of action research. In S.Kemmis& R. McTaggart (Eds.), The action research planner (pp. 5-28). Victoria: Deakin University.
Kemmis, S., et al. (2014). The action rsearch planner. New South Wales: Springer.
Madya, S. (2007). Teori dan praktik penelitian tindakan.: Action research. Bandung: Alfabeta
Mbato, C. L. (2013). Facilitating EFL learners’ self-regulation in reading: Implementing metacognitive approach in a higher learning context. A doctoral thesis: Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
Rahimi, M &Katal, M. (2011). Metacognitive strategies awareness and success in learning English as a foreign language: an overview. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences. 31 (2012), 73-81.
Renandya, W. A &Widodo, H.P. (2016). English language teaching today: Linking theory and pratice. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Richards, Jack C. (2005). Reflective teaching in second language classroom. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Sanchez, et al. (2015). The Use of metacognitive learning strategies and their influence on speaking proficiency of third-year students from the english teaching major at the department of foreign languages of the University of El Salvador during the year 2014. Unpublished thesis, University of El Salvador, El Salvador, Mexico.
Seifori, Z. (2015). Metacognitive awareness and the fluency of task-based oral output across planning conditions. The case of Iranian TEFL students. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research.4 (1), 11-26
Schraw, G. & Dennison, R.S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 460-475.
Waters, H.S. & Schneider, W. (2010). Metacognition, strategy use, and instruction. New York and London: Guilford Press.
Yaumi, M &Damopolli, M. (2014). Action Research: Model dan aplikasi. Jakarta: Kencana Prenamedia Group.
Zulkiply et al. (2008). Metacognition: What roles does it play in students’ academic performance. The International Journal of Learning. 15 (11), 97-105.
Copyright (c) 2019 Daisy Rizqi Putri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The author(s) hold the copyright of the published article without restriction. This policy means that the journal allows the author(s) to hold and retain publishing rights without restrictions